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1st BACHILLERATO 14/15

1st BACHILLERATO 14/15

 Here you can find links for your practice on  VIEWPOINTS 1

  • exam practise (grammar exercises with key)

http://www2.burlingtonbooks.com/Spain/Page.aspx?PageID=411

  • listening practice (you can download the tapescripts)

http://www2.burlingtonbooks.com/Spain/Page.aspx?PageID=172

  • reading practice  (also with the keys)

http://www2.burlingtonbooks.com/Spain/Page.aspx?PageID=410

FUTURE TENSES.

Revise what you already know:

1) Use

Present Progressive

going to-future

will-future

Simple Present

planned action in the near future

planned action in the future;
prediction based on observing the present situation or as a logical consequence (sth. is going to happen)

Prediction based on intuition or experience;
spontaneous decisions;

making promises.

future action is fixed (e.g. timetable)

2) Form

Present Progressive

going to-future

will-future

Simple Present

to be (am, are, is) + infinitive + -ing

to be (am, are, is) + going to + infinitive

will + infinitive

infinitive
3rd person singular (he, she, it) infinitive + -s

3) Examples

Present Progressive

going to-future

 

will-future

Simple Present

4-1 Affirmative sentences 

I am going to a party tonight.

 

We are going to fly to Leeds in summer.

It’s going to rain, look at the clouds!

He will carry this bag for you.

The train leaves at 6.45.

4-2 Negative sentence 

I am not going to a party tonight.

 

We are not going to fly to Leeds in summer.

He will not carry this bag for yo.

The train does not leave at 6.45.

4-3 Questions 

Am I going to a party tonight?

 

Are we going to fly to Leeds in summer?

Will he carry this bag for you?

Does the train leave at 6.45?

4) Spelling

Present Progressive

going to-future

will-future

Simple Present

 

sitting (double consonant after short vowel)

 

nothing special

nothing special

watches (-es after sibilant) 

 

writing (leave out one -e at the end)

 

goes (-es after -o)

lying (change -ie to -y)

 

hurries (-y to -ie after consonant)

 

 

 Remember that you should never use will to say what somebody has arranged or decided to do in the future:

  • Mike is moving to New Jersey next month. (not "Mike will move.")
  • I’m going to visit my friend tonight. (not "I will visit my friend tonight.")
  • Paul isn’t free on Thursday. He’s working in his aunt’s shop.

As you can see, the Present Continuous and going to are used to express future arrangements.

What is new for 1st bachillerato:

1.- Future Perfect

Examples

  • I will have graduated from university by May.
  • Patrick will have lived in Hong Kong for 20 years by the next month.
  • The train will have left by now.

Uses

  1. Completion before a specified point in the future
  2. Actions or situations that will last in the future (for a specified time)
  3. Certainty that an action was completed

USE 1: Completion before a specified point in the future

The first use of this tense is to talk about future actions that will be finished before some specified point in the future.

Examples:

  • Before they come, we will have cleaned up the house.
  • John will have eaten the whole cake, by the time the birthday party starts!

USE 2: Duration in the Future

Another use of this tense is to talk about actions will last after a given point in the future.

Examples:

  • By next year, I will have known Monica for 30 years.
  • Patrick will have lived in Hong Kong for 20 years by 2012.

Common Time Expressions

Time expressions that are commonly used with the Future Perfect:

  • By
  • By the time
  • Before
  • By tomorrow / By 7 o’clock / By next month
  • Until / till

USE 3: Certainty about the near past

The last use is to express conviction that something happened in the near past.

Examples:

  • The train will have left by now. We have to look for another way to get there. (I’m sure the train has left)
  • The guests will have arrived at the hotel by now. (I’m sure the guests have arrived at the hotel)

Positive Sentences

Subject

+

Auxiliary verb

+

Auxiliary verb

+

Past participle

e.g. I/a dog etc.

will

have

e.g. eaten/given/gone etc.

Examples

 

I will have retired by the end of this year.

 

I read 40 pages a day. If I keep up the pace, I will have read the book by Tuesday.

 Questions

Auxiliary verb

+

Subject

+

Auxiliary verb

+

Past participle

will

e.g. I/a dog etc.

have

e.g. eaten/given/gone etc.

 

Examples

 

Will they have graduated from Cambridge by July 2009?

 

Will I have retired by the end of the year?

 

Will you have bought a new processor by the end of this week?

Negative Sentences

Subject

+

Auxiliary verb + not

+

Auxiliary verb

+

Past participle

e.g. I/a dog etc.

will not

have

e.g. eaten/given/gone etc.

 

Examples

 

They won’t have graduated from from Cambridge by July 2009.

 

My uncle won’t have retired by the end of the year.

2.- Future Continuous

Examples

  • Tomorrow at this time, I will be taking my English language exam.
  • Ben won’t be eating the dinner now. He usually eats it around noon!
  • Will you be coming to the party tonight?

We mainly use the Future Continuous to indicate that we will be in the middle of doing something in a specified time in the future.

Uses:

  1. Future actions in progress
  2. Guesses about the present or the future
  3. Polite questions about somebody’s intention .
  4. Action will definitely happen (it usually happens)

Good to know!

If you want to learn about somebody’s intentions, you should always use the Future Continuous rather than the Present Simple. Using the Future Simple implies that you want to influence somebody’s decision. Questions become much more objective if formed in the Future Continuous.

Compare:

  • Will you come home? (= I want you to come home)
  • Will you be coming home? (= I just want to know)

USE 1: Future actions in progress

The first use of the Future Continuous is to express future action in progress.

Examples:

  • In an hour, I will be sitting in front of my TV.
  • In the evening, I will be baking a birthday cake.

USE 2: Guesses

Use this tense also to make guesses about something in the present or future.

Examples:

  • He won’t be coming any time soon. He is still at the office.
  • Beatrice will be getting married very soon.

USE 3: Questions

To make polite questions about something or somebody.

Examples:

  • Will you be coming home before or after 10 p.m.?
  • Will you be going to the supermarket? I have something to buy.

USE 4: Actions which always happen

Example:

They will be playing football on Sunday afternoon.

Positive Sentences

Subject

+

Auxiliary verb

+

Auxiliary verb

+

Verb + ing

e.g. I/a dog etc.

will

be

e.g. working/going/making

  • She’ll be having a bath when I’m back home. (Use 1)
  • Tomorrow at nine, I will be hosing off (=washing with a hose) my car. (Use 1)
  • I’ll be watching TV when my mother arrives. (Use 1)
  • They will be getting home just about now. (Use 2)

Notice

Like any of the Future Tenses, Future Continuous cannot be used in sentences beginning with: while, when, before, by the time, if, etc.

  • By the time, you will be finishing your paiting.

Questions

Auxiliary verb

+

Subject

+

Auxiliary verb

+

Verb + ing

?

Will

I/you/we etc.

be

dancing / taking

  • Is she going to be cooking when we knock at the door? (Use 1)
  • Will Mark be playing football at 6 p.m.? (Use 1)
  • Will you be using the screwdriver? (Use 3)

Negative Sentences

Subject

+

Auxiliary verb

+

Auxiliary verb

+

Verb + ing

e.g. I/a dog etc.

will not

be

e.g. working/going/making

  • We won’t be having supper tomorrow before 8 o’clock. (Use 1)
  • I am not going to be learning English tomorrow at this time. (Use 1)
  • John won’t be sleeping now (= I think John isn’t sleeping now) (Use 2)

Expression with future sense:

“To be about to”

The meaning is that you are going to do something immediately.

I’m about to go out from the house because I’m late for my appointment at the doctor’s, I can’t answer the phone call right now.

Another future tense (not studied this school year)

Future Perfect Continuous

By the next year, I will have been working as a teacher for 20 years. 

 ________________________________________________

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE OR CONTINUOUS

1. This evening I ………………. two letters to my parents (write)

2. My daughter …………………. letters to her friends for hours (write)

3. This morning I ………………… breakfast for my wife (prepare)

4. Today Lucy …………………… her boyfriend three times (phone)

5. My friends …………………….. around Italy for five months (travel)

6. I ………………………… to music all evening (listen) 

7. I ………………………… English since I was a child (learn)

8. We are coming from the beach where my kids ……………….. a sandcastle (make)

9. Why are you so dirty? I …………………………. in the garden (work)

10. I ………………… to Malaga for three days with my in-laws (be)

11. I …………………….. my homework. Now I am going to rst (finish)

 12. My brother ……………………… TV for three hours (watch)

 13. John ………………………… since 3 o’clock (study)

 14. The fatal accident ………. just …………. The police haven’t arrived yet (happen)

 15. ……….. you ………. my watch? I have just lost it (see)

 16. Emma is very tired; she ………………….. all day (work)

 17. My son ………………………. two pages so far (translate)

 18. What weather! It ……………………….. since yesterday (rain)

 19. This week my team ……………….. one match (win)

 20. Today I ……………………. my room (paint)

 21. My kids ……………………… at the beach all morning (play)

 22. I ……………………….. in this town since last February (live)

 23. The police …………………….. the murderer (arrest)

 24. What has happened to the neighbours? They ……………… for hours (shout)

 PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE OR CONTINUOUS

 1. This evening I have written two letters to my parents

 2. My daughter has been writing letters to her friends for hours

 3. This morning I have prepared breakfast for my wife

 4. Today Lucy has phoned her boyfriend three times

 5. My friends have been travelling around Italy for five months

 6. I have been listening to music all evening

 7. I have been learning English since I was a child

 8. We are coming from the beach where my kids have made a sandcastle

 9. Why are you so dirty? I have been working in the garden

 10. I have been to Malaga for three days with my in-laws

 11. I have finished my homework. Now I am going to rest

 12. My brother has been watching TV for three hours

 13. John has been studying since 3 o’clock

 14. The fatal accident has just happened. The police haven’t arrived yet

 15. Have you seen my watch? I have just lost it

 16. Emma is very tired; she has been working all day

 17. My son has translated two pages so far

 18. What weather! It has been raining since yesterday

 19. This week my team has won one match

 20. Today I have painted my room

 21. My kids have been playing at the beach all morning

 22. I have been living in this town since last February

 23. The police have arrested the murderer

 24. What has happened to the neighbours? They have been shouting for hours

SIMPLE PAST AND PRESENT PERFECT PRACTICE.

  1. A: …….. you already ………….(play) the new computer game?
  2. B: No, not yet. I only ………… (buy) it yesterday and I …………..(not have) the time yet.
  3. A: ………. you ………..(go) to the cinema last night?
  4. B: Yes. I was there with Sue and Louis. ………… you ………. to the cinema recently?
  5. A: I …………(go) to the cinema two weeks ago.
  6. B: So you ……………………(not see) the new action film yet.
  7. A: No, unfortunately not. ……… you …………….(enjoy) it?
  8. B: Oh, I really loved it. But Sue ………………. (not like) it - too much action!
  9. A: But why …… you …….. (take) her with you? She …….. (tell) me last week that she …….. (hate) action films.
  10. B: I think she has an eye on Louis. She …….. (try) to flirt with him all the time. So he could not concentrate on the film.
  11. I ……… just ……….. (finish) my homework.
  12. Mary …………. already …………….. (write)  five letters.
  13. Tom ……………. (move) to this town in 1994.
  14. My friend ……….. (be) in Canada two years ago.
  15. I ………………. (not be) to Canada so far.
  16. But I ……………… already ………………. (travel) to London a couple of times.
  17. Last week, Mary and Paul …………. (go) to the cinema.
  18. I can’t take any pictures because I ………………. (not buy) a new film yet.
  19. …………….they ………………….. (spend) their holiday in New Zealand last summer?
  20. …………… you ever ………….. (see) a whale?

 

ANSWERS:

A: Have you already played the new computer game?

2. B: No, not yet. I only bought it yesterday and I have not had the time yet.

3. A: Did you go to the cinema last night?

4. B: Yes. I was there with Sue and Louis. Have you been to the cinema recently?

5. A: I last went to the cinema two weeks ago.

6. B: So you have not seen the new action film yet.

7. A: No, unfortunately not. Did you enjoy it?

8. B: Oh, I really loved it. But Sue did not like it - too much action!

9. A: But why did you take her with you? She told me last week that she hated action films.

    10. B: I think she has an eye on Louis. She tried to flirt with him all the time. So he could not concentrate on the film.

 I have just finished my homework.

 Mary has already written five letters.

 Tom moved to this town in 1994.

   My friend was in Canada two years ago.

I have not been to Canada so far.

But I have already travelled to London a couple of times.

Last week, Mary and Paul went to the cinema.

I can’t take any pictures because I have not bought a new film yet.

Did they spend their holiday in New Zealand last summer?

Have you ever seen a whale?

 

Present Perfect

FORM

[has/have + past participle]

Examples:

  • You have seen that movie many times.
  • Have you seen that movie many times?
  • You have not seen that movie many times.

USE 1 Unspecified Time Before Now

 We use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now. The exact time is not important. You CANNOT use the Present Perfect with specific time expressions such as: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, one day, etc. We CAN use the Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such as: ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc.

Examples:

  • have seen that movie twenty times.
  • I think I have met him once before.
  • There have been many earthquakes in California.
  • People have travelled to the Moon.
  • People have not travelled to Mars.
  • Have you read the book yet?
  • Nobody has ever climbed that mountain.
  • A: Has there ever been a war in the United States?
    B: Yes, there has been a war in the United States.

How Do You Actually Use the Present Perfect?

The concept of "unspecified time" can be very confusing to English learners. It is best to associate Present Perfect with the following topics:

TOPIC 1 Experience

You can use the Present Perfect to describe your experience. It is like saying, "I have the experience of..." You can also use this tense to say that you have never had a certain experience. The Present Perfect is NOT used to describe a specific event.

Examples:

  • have been to France.
    This sentence means that you have had the experience of being in France. Maybe you have been there once, or several times.
  • have been to France three times.
    You can add the number of times at the end of the sentence.
  • have never been to France.
    This sentence means that you have not had the experience of going to France.
  • I think I have seen that movie before.
  • He has never traveled by train.
  • Joan has studied two foreign languages.
  • A: Have you ever met him?
    B: No, I have not met him.

TOPIC 2 Change Over Time

We often use the Present Perfect to talk about change that has happened over a period of time.

Examples:

  • You have grown since the last time I saw you.
  • The government has become more interested in arts education.
  • Japanese has become one of the most popular courses at the university since the Asian studies program was established.
  • My English has really improved since I moved to Australia.

TOPIC 3 Accomplishments

We often use the Present Perfect to list the accomplishments of individuals and humanity. You cannot mention a specific time.

Examples:

  • Man has walked on the Moon.
  • Our son has learned how to read.
  • Doctors have cured many deadly diseases.

TOPIC 4 An Uncompleted Action You Are Expecting

We often use the Present Perfect to say that an action which we expected has not happened. Using the Present Perfect suggests that we are still waiting for the action to happen.

Examples:

  • James has not finished his homework yet.
  • Susan hasn’t mastered Japanese, but she can communicate.
  • Bill has still not arrived.
  • The rain hasn’t stopped.

TOPIC 5 Multiple Actions at Different Times

We also use the Present Perfect to talk about several different actions which have occurred in the past at different times. Present Perfect suggests the process is not complete and more actions are possible.

Examples:

  • The army has attacked that city five times.
  • have had four quizzes and five tests so far this semester.
  • We have had many major problems while working on this project.
  • She has talked to several specialists about her problem, but nobody knows why she is sick.

Time Expressions with Present Perfect

When we use the Present Perfect it means that something has happened at some point in our lives before now. Remember, the exact time the action happened is not important.

 

Sometimes, we want to limit the time we are looking in for an experience. We can do this with expressions such as: in the last week, in the last year, this week, this month, so far, up to now, etc.

 

Examples:

  • Have you been to Mexico in the last year?
  • have seen that movie six times in the last month.
  • They have had three tests in the last week.
  • She graduated from university less than three years ago. She has worked for three different companies so far.
  • My car has broken down three times this week.

NOTICE

"Last year" and "in the last year" are very different in meaning. "Last year" means the year before now, and it is considered a specific time which requires Simple Past. "In the last year" means from 365 days ago until now. It is not considered a specific time, so it requires Present Perfect.

Examples:

  • went to Mexico last year.
    I went to Mexico in the calendar year before this one.
  • have been to Mexico in the last year.
    I have been to Mexico at least once at some point between 365 days ago and now.

USE 2 Duration From the Past Until Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)

 

With Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Present Perfect to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect.

Examples:

  • have had a cold for two weeks.
  • She has been in England for six months.
  • Mary has loved chocolate since she was a little girl.

Although the above use of Present Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:

  • You have only seen that movie one time.
  • Have you only seen that movie one time?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:

  • Many tourists have visited that castle. Active
  • That castle has been visited by many tourists. Passive

Present Perfect Continuous

FORM

[has/have + been + present participle]

Examples:

  • You have been waiting here for two hours.
  • Have you been waiting here for two hours?
  • You have not been waiting here for two hours.

USE 1 Duration from the Past Until Now

 

We use the Present Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect Continuous.

Examples:

  • They have been talking for the last hour.
  • She has been working at that company for three years.
  • What have you been doing for the last 30 minutes?
  • James has been teaching at the university since June.
  • We have been waiting here for over two hours!
  • Why has Nancy not been taking her medicine for the last three days?

USE 2 Recently, Lately

 You can also use the Present Perfect Continuous WITHOUT a duration such as "for two weeks." Without the duration, the tense has a more general meaning of "lately." We often use the words "lately" or "recently" to emphasize this meaning.

Examples:

  • Recently, I have been feeling really tired.
  • She has been watching too much television lately.
  • Have you been exercising lately?
  • Mary has been feeling a little depressed.
  • Lisa has not been practicing her English.
  • What have you been doing?

IMPORTANT

Remember that the Present Perfect Continuous has the meaning of "lately" or "recently." If you use the Present Perfect Continuous in a question such as "Have you been feeling alright?", it can suggest that the person looks sick or unhealthy. A question such as "Have you been smoking?" can suggest that you smell the smoke on the person. Using this tense in a question suggests you can see, smell, hear or feel the results of the action. It is possible to insult someone by using this tense incorrectly.

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:

  • You have only been waiting here for one hour.
  • Have you only been waiting here for one hour?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:

  • Recently, John has been doing the work. Active
  • Recently, the work has been being done by John. Passive

NOTE: Present Perfect Continuous is less commonly used in its passive form.

DIFERENCIA ENTRE PRESENT PERFECT Y PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS.

1.- Present perfect continuous

Esta forma verbal se emplea cuando interesa destacar la acción en sí misma más que el resultado; no se precisa si la acción ha finalizado o no (la acción comenzó en el pasado y puede que acabe de terminar o que incluso continúe).

I have been reading a book (resalto lo que he estado haciendo; no indico si he finalizado el libro o no)

Este tiempo se utiliza también para indicar la duración de una acción que comenzó en el pasado (y que acaba de finalizar o aún continúa).

I have been playing tennis for two hours 

I have been waiting for him for 1 hour (puede que la otra persona acabe de llegar o que yo aún siga esperando; el contexto determinará un sentido u otro) 

El empleo de este tiempo indica que el emisor considera que la duración ha sido larga.

2.- Present perfect simple

Describe una acción que comenzó en el pasado y que acaba de finalizar. Pone el énfasis en el resultado y no en la acción en si misma.

I have read a book (destaco que he leído un libro, que lo he terminado, y no el hecho de haber dedicado un tiempo a la lectura).

En el siguiente ejemplo se puede observar la diferencia entre estas dos formas verbales:

I have done my homework (indico que ya lo he finalizado) 

I have been doing my homework (indico la actividad que he estado desarrollando; no informo de si he terminado mis deberes o no) 

Se utiliza también para indicar cuantas acciones se han realizado en un tiempo determinado.

Today I have read ten books

El empleo de este tiempo informa indirectamente sobre el presente, ya que conlleva que la situación no ha cambiado.

He has gone to Canada (esta persona sigue en Canadá o está de viaje hacia allí; en cualquier caso todavía no ha regresado) 

I have broken my leg (la pierna sigue rota; aún no ha sanado) 

Si no se da información sobre el presente hay que utilizar el "past simple".

He went to Canada (no se informa de si él sigue allí o ya volvió) 

I broke my leg (puede que la pierna ya esté curada o que aún siga rota) 

En aquellos verbos en los que no se utiliza la forma continua hay que recurrir en todos estos supuestos al "present perfect simple".

 ____________________________________________________

 

USED TO / BE USED TO / GET USED TO

USED TO

We use ‘used to’ for something that happened in the past but no longer happens.

  • I used to smoke a packet a day but I stopped 2 years ago.
  • Ben used to travel a lot in his job but now, since his promotion, he doesn’t.
  • I used to drive to work but now I take the bus.

We also use it for something that was true but no longer is.

  • There used to be a cinema in the town but now there isn’t.
  • She used to have really long hair but she’s had it all cut off.
  • I didn’t use to like him but now I do.

Used to do’ is different from ‘ to be used to doing’ and ‘to get used to doing’

 

TO BE USED TO + -ING

We use ‘to be used to doing’ tos ay that something is normal, not unusual.

  • I’m used to living on my own. I’ve done it for quite a long time.
  • Hans has lived in England foro ver a year, so he is used to driving on the left now.
  • They’ve always lived in hot countries, so they aren’t used to the cold weather here.

 

TO GET USED TO + -ING

We use ‘to get used to doing’ to talk about the process of something becoming normal for us.

  • I didn’t understand the accent when I first moved here but I quickly got used to it. (I quickly used to understanding the accent).
  • She has started working nights and is still getting used to sleeping during the day.
  • I have always lived in the country but now I’m beginning to get used to living in the city.

EXERCISE

1.    Caroline …………………. (have) a walkman, now she has an ipod.

2.    We haven’t seen Bob very often since he got a promotion. He’s very busy. He ………………………. (not be) so busy.

3.    I’ve just got my fist job. It’s exciting but I’ll have ………………… (work) regular hours,.

4.    It is difficult for Tom to drive in England. He ……………….. (drive) on the left-hand side of the road.

5.    Peter is English. It isn’t difficult for him to drive in England. He ……………….. (drive) on the left-hand side of the road.

6.    When Peter was young, he ………………….. (ride) a bicycle to school.

7.    People from India usually find our food tasteless. They ………….. (eat) spicy food.

8.    Computers ………………… (be) very expensive. Now the prices are more reasonable.

9.    English has become internationa. Businessmen ……………….. (speak) English at international meetings.

10.                      During my childhood, I …………………. (spend) a lot of time with my grandparents.

11.                      Maria …………………. (think) that she would never ……………….. (live) in New York, but she …………….…. (live) there  now.

 

KEY:

1. used to have

2. is getting used to being / didn’t use to be

3. to get used to working

4. is getting used to driving

5. is used to driving

6. used to ride

7. are used to eating

8. used to be

9. are used to speaking

10. used to spend

11. used to think

      get used to living

      is used to living

 

SUFFIXES.

Some suffixes to form adjectives from nouns:

  • -y / -ly  friendly
  • -ous  religious
  • -tic  democratic
  • -ical/ -al  political

From verbs:

  • -able  suitable
  • -ive  attractive

Some adjective suffixes have special meaning:

  • -ish = with the quality of (childish)
  • -ish = more or less (greenish)
  • -ful = with, having (meaningful)
  • -less = without, lacking (meaningless)

 

Adjective suffixes

  • -ed = describe feelings or a state, so they are applied to people.
  • -ing = describe nouns or actions which create this feeling.

An interesting book makes me feel interested.

 

BE CAREFUL!

I’m bored (estoy aburrido)

I’m boring (soy aburrido)

In Spanish the difference is in the verb whereas in English the difference is in the adjective ending.

UNIT 1: COMPOUND ADJECTIVES

They are formed combining the adjective with other parts of the sentence. Normally the two words which form the adjective are separated by an hyphen: blue-eyed - de ojos azules, well-known - bien/muy conocido, etc.

- An actor who is well known > A well-known actor
- A girl who is four years old > A four-year-old girl
- A person who works hard > A hard-working person
- A conference that lasts three hours > A three-hour conference

*Note: the adjectives don’t have any plural part.
- A three-hours conference (incorrect)
- A three-hour conference (correct)

Characteristics

  • a good-looking girl - una muchacha bonita
  • a well-dressed woman - una mujer bien vestida
  • a pair of high-heeled shoes - un par de zapatos de tacón alto.
  • a well-known actor - un actor bien conocido
  • some handmade toys - algunos juguetes hechos a mano
  • a bulletproof vest - un chaleco a prueba de balas
  • a first-class ticket - un bllete de primera clase
  • a well-kept house - una casa bien conservada
  • a part-time job - un trabajo de tiempo parcial
  • a brand-new radio - una radio completamente nueva
  • several duty-free goods - varios productos libres de impuestos
  • a one-way street - una calle de una sola dirección
  • a second-hand car - un coche de segunda mano

Personality

  • a hard-working person - una persona trabajadora
  • a tight-fisted banker - un banquero tacaño
  • a kind-hearted mother - una madre bondadosa
  • an absent-minded scientist - un científico distraído
  • a two-faced politician - un político falso
  • a pig-headed friend - un amigo testarudo
  • a smooth-tongued employee - un empleado chupamedias
  • a stuck-up model - una modelo engreída
  • a self-centered artist - un artista egocéntrico
  • a good-natured professor - un profesor bonachón
  • a quick-tempered boss - un jefe irascible
  • a broad-minded president - un presidente tolerante, de mente abierta
  • a narrow-minded minister - un ministro de mente estrecha

 Body

  • a fair-haired girl - una chica de pelo rubio
  • a curly-haired baby - un bebé de pelo rizado
  • a green-eyed woman - una mujer de ojos verdes
  • a long-legged model - una modelo de piernas largas
  • a left-handed boxer - un boxeador zurdo
  • a right-handed tennis player - un tenista diestro
  • a flatfooted runner - un corredor de pie plano
  • a bowlegged cowboy - un vaquero patizambo, de piernas arqueadas
  • a short-sighted writer - un escritor corto de vista
  • a cross-eyed boy - un chico bizco
  • a dark-skinned person - una persona de piel oscura
  • a narrow-waisted actress - una actriz de cintura estrecha
  • a freckle-faced little girl - una niñita de cara con pecas

Quantity

  • a five-dollar note - un billete de cinco dólares
  • a six-sided figure - un figura de seis lados
  • a twenty-year-old girl - una chica de veinte años
  • a three-hour conference - una conferencia de tres horas
  • a ten-page report - un informe de diez páginas
  • a four-day journey - un viaje de cuatro días
  • a five-kilometer tunnel - un túnel de cinco kilómetros
  • a thirty-question test - una prueba de treinta preguntas
  • a two-week tour - un tour de dos semanas
  • a ten-minute call - una llamada de diez minutos
  • a twenty-mile border - una frontera de veinte millas
  • a ten-speed bicycle - una bicicleta de diez velocidades
  • a forty-story building - edificio de cuarenta pisos

 

PHRASAL VERBS

Separable Phrasal Verbs          

add up
add

back up
cause to move backwards; support

blow up 
cause to explode; destroy by explosives

break down
analyze; list the parts of separately

bring about 
cause to happen

bring off
accomplish

bring on
cause

 

bring out
publish; emphasize

bring over
bring

bring to
revive

 

bring up
raise; care for from childhood

brush out
brush the inside of

burn down
destroy by burning

 

burn up
consume by fire

buy out
by the other person’s share of a business

buy up
buy the whole supply of

 

call off
cancel; order away

call up
telephone; summon for military service

calm down
become calm

 

carry on
continue

carry out
fulfill; complete; accomplish; perform

carry over
carry; continue at another time or place

 

cheer up
cause to become cheerful

chew up
chew thoroughly

chop up
chop into small pieces

 

clean off
clear the surface of

clean out
clean the inside of

clean up
tidy

 

clear out
clear the inside of

clear up
clarify; clear the inside of

close down
close permanently

 

close up
close temporarily

count in
include

count out
exclude

 

count up
calculate; count; add to a total

cross out
eliminate

cut off
interrupt; sever; amputate

 

cut out
eliminate; delete

cut down
reduce in quantity

draw up
write; compose (a document)

 

dress up
put clothes on; adorn

dust out
dust the inside of

eat up
eat completely

 

figure out
interpret; understand

figure up
compute

fill in
complete (a printed form)

 

fill out
complete (a printed form)

fill up
fill completely (a container)

find out
discover

 

fix up
repair; arrange in a suitable manner

get across
cause to be understood

give back
return

 

give out
distribute; announce

give up
surrender something

hand down
deliver; pronounce formally; leave as an inheritance

 

hand over
yield control of

hang up
suspend

have on
be dressed in

 

have over
entertain someone informally at one’s home

hold off
delay; restrain

hold up
delay; rob; threaten with a weapon

 

keep up
continue; keep the same pace

leave out
omit

let down
disappoint

 

let out
release from confinement; make larger (in sewing)

light up
light; illuminate thoroughly

live down
live in such a way as to cause something to be forgotten

 

make over
remake

move over
move to the side

pass out
distribute

 

pass up
not take advantage of (as an opportunity)

pass on
transmit

pay back
repay

 

pay off
discharge a debt completely; give someone his final pay

pick up
come to meet an escort; lift with hands or fingers; learn casually;initiate an association publicly

play down
minimize

 

play up
emphasize

point out
indicate

pull down
pull in a downward direction; raze

 

push across
cause to be understood or accepted

put off
postpone

put on
dress in; deceive or fool

 

put up
preserve (food); receive as an overnight guest

quiet down
be quiet

ring up
the telephone

 

rinse off
rinse the surface of

rinse out
rinse the inside of

rule out
eliminate

 

run down
trace; disparage; hit with a vehicle

run off
cause to depart; reproduce mechanically

save up
accumulate

 

see through
complete; in spite of difficulties

see off
accompany someone to the beginning of a trip

send back
send to a place where formerly located

 

send over
send to where someone is

set up
arrange

show off
exhibit ostentatiously

 

shut off
cause to cease functioning

slow up
cause to move more slowly

spell out
enumerate; state in detail

 

stand up
fail to keep an appointment with

sweep out
sweep the inside of

take back
return; retract a statement

 

take down
remove from a high position; write from dictation

take in
understood; fool; deceive; make smaller (in sewing)

take over
take; assume command of

 

tear down
destroy

tear up
tear into small pieces

tell off
scold; reprimand

 

think over
consider

think through
consider from beginning to end

think up
create; invent

 

throw away
discard

throw over
reject

tie up
tie securely or tight

 

tire out
cause to be exhausted

touch up
repair

try on
put on a garment to verify the fit

 

try out
test

turn down
refuse; lower the volume

turn out
produce; force into exile, extinguish (a light)

 

wash off
wash the surface of

wash out
wash the inside of

wear out
use until no longer usable; tire greatly

 

wind up
finish, tighten the spring of a watch or machine

wipe off
wipe the surface of

wipe out
wipe the inside of; decimate

 

work out
solve

write down
record

write out
write down every detail; spell out

 

write up
compose; prepare (a document)

   

Separable Phrasal Verbs
The object may come after the following phrasal verbs or it may separate the two parts:

  • ·  You have to do this paint job over.
  • ·  You have to do over this paint job.

When the object of the following phrasal verbs is a pronoun, the two parts of the phrasal verb must be separated:

  • ·  You have to do it over.

Verb

Meaning

Example

blow up

explode

The terrorists tried to blow up the railroad station.

bring up

mention a topic

My mother brought up that little matter of my prison record again.

bring up

raise children

It isn’t easy to bring up children nowadays.

call off

cancel

They called off this afternoon’s meeting

do over

repeat a job

Do this homework over.

fill out

complete a form

Fill out this application form and mail it in.

fill up

fill to capacity

She filled up the grocery cart with free food.

find out

discover

My sister found out that her husband had been planning a surprise party for her.

give away

give something to someone else for free

The filling station was giving away free gas.

give back

return an object

My brother borrowed my car. I have a feeling he’s not about to give it back.

hand in

submit something (assignment)

The students handed in their papers and left the room.

hang up

put something on hook or receiver

She hung up the phone before she hung up her clothes.

hold up

delay

I hate to hold up the meeting, but I have to go to the bathroom.

hold up (2)

rob

Three masked gunmen held up the Security Bank this afternoon.

leave out

omit

You left out the part about the police chase down Asylum Avenue.

look over

examine, check

The lawyers looked over the papers carefully before questioning the witness. (They looked them over carefully.)

look up

search in a list

You’ve misspelled this word again. You’d better look it up.

make up

invent a story or lie

She knew she was in trouble, so she made up a story about going to the movies with her friends.

make out

hear, understand

He was so far away, we really couldn’t make out what he was saying.

pick out

choose

There were three men in the line-up. She picked out the guy she thought had stolen her purse.

pick up

lift something off something else

The crane picked up the entire house. (Watch them pick itup.)

point out

call attention to

As we drove through Paris, Francoise pointed out the major historical sites.

put away

save or store

We put away money for our retirement. She put away the cereal boxes.

put off

postpone

We asked the boss to put off the meeting until tomorrow. (Please put it off for another day.)

put on

put clothing on the body

put on a sweater and a jacket. (I put them on quickly.)

put out

extinguish

The firefighters put out the house fire before it could spread. (They put it out quickly.)

read over

peruse

read over the homework, but couldn’t make any sense of it.

set up

to arrange, begin

My wife set up the living room exactly the way she wanted it. She set it up.

take down

make a written note

These are your instructions. Write them down before you forget.

take off

remove clothing

It was so hot that I had to take off my shirt.

talk over

discuss

We have serious problems here. Let’s talk them over like adults.

throw away

discard

That’s a lot of money! Don’t just throw it away.

try on

put clothing on to see if it fits

She tried on fifteen dresses before she found one she liked.

try out

test

tried out four cars before I could find one that pleased me.

turn down

lower volume

Your radio is driving me crazy! Please turn it down.

turn down (2)

reject

He applied for a promotion twice this year, but he was turned down both times.

turn up

raise the volume

Grandpa couldn’t hear, so he turned up his hearing aid.

turn off

switch off electricity

We turned off the lights before anyone could see us.

turn off (2)

repulse

It was a disgusting movie. It really turned me off.

turn on

switch on the electricity

Turn on the CD player so we can dance.

use up

exhaust, use completely

The gang members used up all the money and went out to rob some more banks.

   
        

 

Inseparable Phrasal Verbs (Transitive)
With the following phrasal verbs, the lexical part of the verb (the part of the phrasal verb that carries the "verb-meaning") cannot be separated from the prepositions (or other parts) that accompany it: "Who will look after my estate when I’m gone?"

Verb

Meaning

Example

call on

ask to recite in class

The teacher called on students in the back row.

call on (2)

visit

The old minister continued to call on his sick parishioners.

get over

recover from sickness or disappointment

got over the flu, but I don’t know if I’ll ever get overmy broken heart.

go over

review

The students went over the material before the exam. They should have gone over it twice.

go through

use up; consume

They country went through most of its coal reserves in one year. Did he go through all his money already?

look after

take care of

My mother promised to look after my dog while I was gone.

look into

investigate

The police will look into the possibilities of embezzlement.

run across

find by chance

ran across my old roommate at the college reunion.

run into

meet

Carlos ran into his English professor in the hallway.

take after

resemble

My second son seems to take after his mother.

wait on

serve

It seemed strange to see my old boss wait on tables.

   

 

Three-Word Phrasal Verbs (Transitive)
With the following phrasal verbs, you will find three parts: "My brother dropped out of school before he could graduate."

Verb

Meaning

Example

break in on

interrupt (a conversation)

I was talking to Mom on the phone when the operator broke in on our call.

catch up with

keep abreast

After our month-long trip, it was time to catch up with the neighbors and the news around town.

check up on

examine, investigate

The boys promised to check up on the condition of the summer house from time to time.

come up with

to contribute (suggestion, money)

After years of giving nothing, the old parishioner was able tocome up with a thousand-dollar donation.

cut down on

curtail (expenses)

We tried to cut down on the money we were spending on entertainment.

drop out of

leave school

I hope none of my students drop out of school this semester.

get along with

have a good relationship with

I found it very hard to get along with my brother when we were young.

get away with

escape blame

Janik cheated on the exam and then tried to get away with it.

get rid of

eliminate

The citizens tried to get rid of their corrupt mayor in the recent election.

get through with

finish

When will you ever get through with that program?

keep up with

maintain pace with

It’s hard to keep up with the Joneses when you lose your job!

look forward to

anticipate with pleasure

I always look forward to the beginning of a new semester.

look down on

despise

It’s typical of a jingoistic country that the citizens look down on their geographical neighbors.

look in on

visit (somebody)

We were going to look in on my brother-in-law, but he wasn’t home.

look out for

be careful, anticipate

Good instructors will look out for early signs of failure in their students

look up to

respect

First-graders really look up to their teachers.

make sure of

verify

Make sure of the student’s identity before you let him into the classroom.

put up with

tolerate

The teacher had to put up with a great deal of nonsense from the new students.

run out of

exhaust supply

The runners ran out of energy before the end of the race.

take care of

be responsible for

My oldest sister took care of us younger children after Mom died.

talk back to

answer impolitely

The star player talked back to the coach and was thrown off the team.

think back on

recall

I often think back on my childhood with great pleasure.

walk out on

abandon

Her husband walked out on her and their three children.

 

 

Intransitive Phrasal Verbs 
The following phrasal verbs are not followed by an object: "Once you leave home, you can never really go back again."

Verb

Meaning

Example

break down

stop functioning

That old Jeep had a tendency to break down just when I needed it the most.

catch on

become popular

Popular songs seem to catch on in California first and then spread eastward.

come back

return to a place

Father promised that we would never come back to this horrible place.

come in

enter

They tried to come in through the back door, but it was locked.

come to

regain consciousness

He was hit on the head very hard, but after several minutes, he started to come to again.

come over

to visit

The children promised to come over, but they never do.

drop by

visit without appointment

We used to just drop by, but they were never home, so we stopped doing that.

eat out

dine in a restaurant

When we visited Paris, we loved eating out in the sidewalk cafes.

get by

survive

Uncle Heine didn’t have much money, but he always seemed to get by without borrowing money from relatives.

get up

arise

Grandmother tried to get up, but the couch was too low, and she couldn’t make it on her own.

go back

return to a place

It’s hard to imagine that we will ever go back to Lithuania.

go on

continue

He would finish one Dickens novel and then just go on to the next.

go on (2)

happen

The cops heard all the noise and stopped to see what wasgoing on.

grow up

get older

Charles grew up to be a lot like his father.

keep away

remain at a distance

The judge warned the stalker to keep away from his victim’s home.

keep on (with gerund)

continue with the same

He tried to keep on singing long after his voice was ruined.

pass out

lose consciousness, faint

He had drunk too much; he passed out on the sidewalk outside the bar.

show off

demonstrate haughtily

Whenever he sat down at the piano, we knew he was going toshow off.

show up

arrive

Day after day, Efrain showed up for class twenty minutes late.

wake up

arouse from sleep

woke up when the rooster crowed.

Here’s a list of 1000 phrasal verbs:

 http://www.ompersonal.com.ar/omphrasal/acercadeverbosfrasales.htm

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