1st BACHILLERATO 14/15
Here you can find links for your practice on VIEWPOINTS 1
- exam practise (grammar exercises with key)
- listening practice (you can download the tapescripts)
- reading practice (also with the keys)
Revise what you already know:
planned action in the near future
planned action in the future;
Prediction based on intuition or experience;
future action is fixed (e.g. timetable)
to be (am, are, is) + infinitive + -ing
to be (am, are, is) + going to + infinitive
will + infinitive
4-1 Affirmative sentences
I am going to a party tonight.
We are going to fly to Leeds in summer.
It’s going to rain, look at the clouds!
He will carry this bag for you.
The train leaves at 6.45.
4-2 Negative sentence
I am not going to a party tonight.
We are not going to fly to Leeds in summer.
He will not carry this bag for yo.
The train does not leave at 6.45.
Am I going to a party tonight?
Are we going to fly to Leeds in summer?
Will he carry this bag for you?
Does the train leave at 6.45?
sitting (double consonant after short vowel)
watches (-es after sibilant)
writing (leave out one -e at the end)
goes (-es after -o)
lying (change -ie to -y)
hurries (-y to -ie after consonant)
Remember that you should never use will to say what somebody has arranged or decided to do in the future:
- Mike is moving to New Jersey next month. (not "Mike will move.")
- I’m going to visit my friend tonight. (not "I will visit my friend tonight.")
- Paul isn’t free on Thursday. He’s working in his aunt’s shop.
What is new for 1st bachillerato:
1.- Future Perfect
- I will have graduated from university by May.
- Patrick will have lived in Hong Kong for 20 years by the next month.
- The train will have left by now.
- Completion before a specified point in the future
- Actions or situations that will last in the future (for a specified time)
- Certainty that an action was completed
USE 1: Completion before a specified point in the future
The first use of this tense is to talk about future actions that will be finished before some specified point in the future.
- Before they come, we will have cleaned up the house.
- John will have eaten the whole cake, by the time the birthday party starts!
USE 2: Duration in the Future
Another use of this tense is to talk about actions will last after a given point in the future.
- By next year, I will have known Monica for 30 years.
- Patrick will have lived in Hong Kong for 20 years by 2012.
Common Time Expressions
Time expressions that are commonly used with the Future Perfect:
- By the time
- By tomorrow / By 7 o’clock / By next month
- Until / till
USE 3: Certainty about the near past
The last use is to express conviction that something happened in the near past.
- The train will have left by now. We have to look for another way to get there. (I’m sure the train has left)
- The guests will have arrived at the hotel by now. (I’m sure the guests have arrived at the hotel)
e.g. I/a dog etc.
e.g. eaten/given/gone etc.
I will have retired by the end of this year.
I read 40 pages a day. If I keep up the pace, I will have read the book by Tuesday.
e.g. I/a dog etc.
e.g. eaten/given/gone etc.
Will they have graduated from Cambridge by July 2009?
Will I have retired by the end of the year?
Will you have bought a new processor by the end of this week?
Auxiliary verb + not
e.g. I/a dog etc.
e.g. eaten/given/gone etc.
They won’t have graduated from from Cambridge by July 2009.
My uncle won’t have retired by the end of the year.
2.- Future Continuous
- Tomorrow at this time, I will be taking my English language exam.
- Ben won’t be eating the dinner now. He usually eats it around noon!
- Will you be coming to the party tonight?
We mainly use the Future Continuous to indicate that we will be in the middle of doing something in a specified time in the future.
- Future actions in progress
- Guesses about the present or the future
- Polite questions about somebody’s intention .
- Action will definitely happen (it usually happens)
Good to know!
If you want to learn about somebody’s intentions, you should always use the Future Continuous rather than the Present Simple. Using the Future Simple implies that you want to influence somebody’s decision. Questions become much more objective if formed in the Future Continuous.
- Will you come home? (= I want you to come home)
- Will you be coming home? (= I just want to know)
USE 1: Future actions in progress
The first use of the Future Continuous is to express future action in progress.
- In an hour, I will be sitting in front of my TV.
- In the evening, I will be baking a birthday cake.
USE 2: Guesses
Use this tense also to make guesses about something in the present or future.
- He won’t be coming any time soon. He is still at the office.
- Beatrice will be getting married very soon.
USE 3: Questions
To make polite questions about something or somebody.
- Will you be coming home before or after 10 p.m.?
- Will you be going to the supermarket? I have something to buy.
USE 4: Actions which always happen
They will be playing football on Sunday afternoon.
Verb + ing
e.g. I/a dog etc.
- She’ll be having a bath when I’m back home. (Use 1)
- Tomorrow at nine, I will be hosing off (=washing with a hose) my car. (Use 1)
- I’ll be watching TV when my mother arrives. (Use 1)
- They will be getting home just about now. (Use 2)
Like any of the Future Tenses, Future Continuous cannot be used in sentences beginning with: while, when, before, by the time, if, etc.
- By the time, you will be finishing your paiting.
Verb + ing
dancing / taking
- Is she going to be cooking when we knock at the door? (Use 1)
- Will Mark be playing football at 6 p.m.? (Use 1)
- Will you be using the screwdriver? (Use 3)
Verb + ing
e.g. I/a dog etc.
- We won’t be having supper tomorrow before 8 o’clock. (Use 1)
- I am not going to be learning English tomorrow at this time. (Use 1)
- John won’t be sleeping now (= I think John isn’t sleeping now) (Use 2)
Expression with future sense:
“To be about to”
The meaning is that you are going to do something immediately.
I’m about to go out from the house because I’m late for my appointment at the doctor’s, I can’t answer the phone call right now.
Another future tense (not studied this school year)
Future Perfect Continuous
By the next year, I will have been working as a teacher for 20 years.
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE OR CONTINUOUS
1. This evening I ………………. two letters to my parents (write)
2. My daughter …………………. letters to her friends for hours (write)
3. This morning I ………………… breakfast for my wife (prepare)
4. Today Lucy …………………… her boyfriend three times (phone)
5. My friends …………………….. around Italy for five months (travel)
6. I ………………………… to music all evening (listen)
7. I ………………………… English since I was a child (learn)
8. We are coming from the beach where my kids ……………….. a sandcastle (make)
9. Why are you so dirty? I …………………………. in the garden (work)
10. I ………………… to Malaga for three days with my in-laws (be)
11. I …………………….. my homework. Now I am going to rst (finish)
12. My brother ……………………… TV for three hours (watch)
13. John ………………………… since 3 o’clock (study)
14. The fatal accident ………. just …………. The police haven’t arrived yet (happen)
15. ……….. you ………. my watch? I have just lost it (see)
16. Emma is very tired; she ………………….. all day (work)
17. My son ………………………. two pages so far (translate)
18. What weather! It ……………………….. since yesterday (rain)
19. This week my team ……………….. one match (win)
20. Today I ……………………. my room (paint)
21. My kids ……………………… at the beach all morning (play)
22. I ……………………….. in this town since last February (live)
23. The police …………………….. the murderer (arrest)
24. What has happened to the neighbours? They ……………… for hours (shout)
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE OR CONTINUOUS
1. This evening I have written two letters to my parents
2. My daughter has been writing letters to her friends for hours
3. This morning I have prepared breakfast for my wife
4. Today Lucy has phoned her boyfriend three times
5. My friends have been travelling around Italy for five months
6. I have been listening to music all evening
7. I have been learning English since I was a child
8. We are coming from the beach where my kids have made a sandcastle
9. Why are you so dirty? I have been working in the garden
10. I have been to Malaga for three days with my in-laws
11. I have finished my homework. Now I am going to rest
12. My brother has been watching TV for three hours
13. John has been studying since 3 o’clock
14. The fatal accident has just happened. The police haven’t arrived yet
15. Have you seen my watch? I have just lost it
16. Emma is very tired; she has been working all day
17. My son has translated two pages so far
18. What weather! It has been raining since yesterday
19. This week my team has won one match
20. Today I have painted my room
21. My kids have been playing at the beach all morning
22. I have been living in this town since last February
23. The police have arrested the murderer
24. What has happened to the neighbours? They have been shouting for hours
SIMPLE PAST AND PRESENT PERFECT PRACTICE.
- A: …….. you already ………….(play) the new computer game?
- B: No, not yet. I only ………… (buy) it yesterday and I …………..(not have) the time yet.
- A: ………. you ………..(go) to the cinema last night?
- B: Yes. I was there with Sue and Louis. ………… you ………. to the cinema recently?
- A: I …………(go) to the cinema two weeks ago.
- B: So you ……………………(not see) the new action film yet.
- A: No, unfortunately not. ……… you …………….(enjoy) it?
- B: Oh, I really loved it. But Sue ………………. (not like) it - too much action!
- A: But why …… you …….. (take) her with you? She …….. (tell) me last week that she …….. (hate) action films.
- B: I think she has an eye on Louis. She …….. (try) to flirt with him all the time. So he could not concentrate on the film.
- I ……… just ……….. (finish) my homework.
- Mary …………. already …………….. (write) five letters.
- Tom ……………. (move) to this town in 1994.
- My friend ……….. (be) in Canada two years ago.
- I ………………. (not be) to Canada so far.
- But I ……………… already ………………. (travel) to London a couple of times.
- Last week, Mary and Paul …………. (go) to the cinema.
- I can’t take any pictures because I ………………. (not buy) a new film yet.
- …………….they ………………….. (spend) their holiday in New Zealand last summer?
- …………… you ever ………….. (see) a whale?
A: Have you already played the new computer game?
2. B: No, not yet. I only bought it yesterday and I have not had the time yet.
3. A: Did you go to the cinema last night?
4. B: Yes. I was there with Sue and Louis. Have you been to the cinema recently?
5. A: I last went to the cinema two weeks ago.
6. B: So you have not seen the new action film yet.
7. A: No, unfortunately not. Did you enjoy it?
8. B: Oh, I really loved it. But Sue did not like it - too much action!
9. A: But why did you take her with you? She told me last week that she hated action films.
10. B: I think she has an eye on Louis. She tried to flirt with him all the time. So he could not concentrate on the film.
I have just finished my homework.
Mary has already written five letters.
Tom moved to this town in 1994.
My friend was in Canada two years ago.
I have not been to Canada so far.
But I have already travelled to London a couple of times.
Last week, Mary and Paul went to the cinema.
I can’t take any pictures because I have not bought a new film yet.
Did they spend their holiday in New Zealand last summer?
Have you ever seen a whale?
[has/have + past participle]
- You have seen that movie many times.
- Have you seen that movie many times?
- You have not seen that movie many times.
USE 1 Unspecified Time Before Now
We use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now. The exact time is not important. You CANNOT use the Present Perfect with specific time expressions such as: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, one day, etc. We CAN use the Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such as: ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc.
- I have seen that movie twenty times.
- I think I have met him once before.
- There have been many earthquakes in California.
- People have travelled to the Moon.
- People have not travelled to Mars.
- Have you read the book yet?
- Nobody has ever climbed that mountain.
- A: Has there ever been a war in the United States?
B: Yes, there has been a war in the United States.
How Do You Actually Use the Present Perfect?
The concept of "unspecified time" can be very confusing to English learners. It is best to associate Present Perfect with the following topics:
TOPIC 1 Experience
You can use the Present Perfect to describe your experience. It is like saying, "I have the experience of..." You can also use this tense to say that you have never had a certain experience. The Present Perfect is NOT used to describe a specific event.
- I have been to France.
This sentence means that you have had the experience of being in France. Maybe you have been there once, or several times.
- I have been to France three times.
You can add the number of times at the end of the sentence.
- I have never been to France.
This sentence means that you have not had the experience of going to France.
- I think I have seen that movie before.
- He has never traveled by train.
- Joan has studied two foreign languages.
- A: Have you ever met him?
B: No, I have not met him.
TOPIC 2 Change Over Time
We often use the Present Perfect to talk about change that has happened over a period of time.
- You have grown since the last time I saw you.
- The government has become more interested in arts education.
- Japanese has become one of the most popular courses at the university since the Asian studies program was established.
- My English has really improved since I moved to Australia.
TOPIC 3 Accomplishments
We often use the Present Perfect to list the accomplishments of individuals and humanity. You cannot mention a specific time.
- Man has walked on the Moon.
- Our son has learned how to read.
- Doctors have cured many deadly diseases.
TOPIC 4 An Uncompleted Action You Are Expecting
We often use the Present Perfect to say that an action which we expected has not happened. Using the Present Perfect suggests that we are still waiting for the action to happen.
- James has not finished his homework yet.
- Susan hasn’t mastered Japanese, but she can communicate.
- Bill has still not arrived.
- The rain hasn’t stopped.
TOPIC 5 Multiple Actions at Different Times
We also use the Present Perfect to talk about several different actions which have occurred in the past at different times. Present Perfect suggests the process is not complete and more actions are possible.
- The army has attacked that city five times.
- I have had four quizzes and five tests so far this semester.
- We have had many major problems while working on this project.
- She has talked to several specialists about her problem, but nobody knows why she is sick.
Time Expressions with Present Perfect
When we use the Present Perfect it means that something has happened at some point in our lives before now. Remember, the exact time the action happened is not important.
Sometimes, we want to limit the time we are looking in for an experience. We can do this with expressions such as: in the last week, in the last year, this week, this month, so far, up to now, etc.
- Have you been to Mexico in the last year?
- I have seen that movie six times in the last month.
- They have had three tests in the last week.
- She graduated from university less than three years ago. She has worked for three different companies so far.
- My car has broken down three times this week.
"Last year" and "in the last year" are very different in meaning. "Last year" means the year before now, and it is considered a specific time which requires Simple Past. "In the last year" means from 365 days ago until now. It is not considered a specific time, so it requires Present Perfect.
- I went to Mexico last year.
I went to Mexico in the calendar year before this one.
- I have been to Mexico in the last year.
I have been to Mexico at least once at some point between 365 days ago and now.
USE 2 Duration From the Past Until Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)
With Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Present Perfect to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect.
- I have had a cold for two weeks.
- She has been in England for six months.
- Mary has loved chocolate since she was a little girl.
Although the above use of Present Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
- You have only seen that movie one time.
- Have you only seen that movie one time?
ACTIVE / PASSIVE
- Many tourists have visited that castle. Active
- That castle has been visited by many tourists. Passive
Present Perfect Continuous
[has/have + been + present participle]
- You have been waiting here for two hours.
- Have you been waiting here for two hours?
- You have not been waiting here for two hours.
USE 1 Duration from the Past Until Now
We use the Present Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect Continuous.
- They have been talking for the last hour.
- She has been working at that company for three years.
- What have you been doing for the last 30 minutes?
- James has been teaching at the university since June.
- We have been waiting here for over two hours!
- Why has Nancy not been taking her medicine for the last three days?
USE 2 Recently, Lately
You can also use the Present Perfect Continuous WITHOUT a duration such as "for two weeks." Without the duration, the tense has a more general meaning of "lately." We often use the words "lately" or "recently" to emphasize this meaning.
- Recently, I have been feeling really tired.
- She has been watching too much television lately.
- Have you been exercising lately?
- Mary has been feeling a little depressed.
- Lisa has not been practicing her English.
- What have you been doing?
Remember that the Present Perfect Continuous has the meaning of "lately" or "recently." If you use the Present Perfect Continuous in a question such as "Have you been feeling alright?", it can suggest that the person looks sick or unhealthy. A question such as "Have you been smoking?" can suggest that you smell the smoke on the person. Using this tense in a question suggests you can see, smell, hear or feel the results of the action. It is possible to insult someone by using this tense incorrectly.
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
- You have only been waiting here for one hour.
- Have you only been waiting here for one hour?
ACTIVE / PASSIVE
- Recently, John has been doing the work. Active
- Recently, the work has been being done by John. Passive
NOTE: Present Perfect Continuous is less commonly used in its passive form.
DIFERENCIA ENTRE PRESENT PERFECT Y PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS.
1.- Present perfect continuous
Esta forma verbal se emplea cuando interesa destacar la acción en sí misma más que el resultado; no se precisa si la acción ha finalizado o no (la acción comenzó en el pasado y puede que acabe de terminar o que incluso continúe).
I have been reading a book (resalto lo que he estado haciendo; no indico si he finalizado el libro o no)
Este tiempo se utiliza también para indicar la duración de una acción que comenzó en el pasado (y que acaba de finalizar o aún continúa).
I have been playing tennis for two hours
I have been waiting for him for 1 hour (puede que la otra persona acabe de llegar o que yo aún siga esperando; el contexto determinará un sentido u otro)
El empleo de este tiempo indica que el emisor considera que la duración ha sido larga.
2.- Present perfect simple
Describe una acción que comenzó en el pasado y que acaba de finalizar. Pone el énfasis en el resultado y no en la acción en si misma.
I have read a book (destaco que he leído un libro, que lo he terminado, y no el hecho de haber dedicado un tiempo a la lectura).
En el siguiente ejemplo se puede observar la diferencia entre estas dos formas verbales:
I have done my homework (indico que ya lo he finalizado)
I have been doing my homework (indico la actividad que he estado desarrollando; no informo de si he terminado mis deberes o no)
Se utiliza también para indicar cuantas acciones se han realizado en un tiempo determinado.
Today I have read ten books
El empleo de este tiempo informa indirectamente sobre el presente, ya que conlleva que la situación no ha cambiado.
He has gone to Canada (esta persona sigue en Canadá o está de viaje hacia allí; en cualquier caso todavía no ha regresado)
I have broken my leg (la pierna sigue rota; aún no ha sanado)
Si no se da información sobre el presente hay que utilizar el "past simple".
He went to Canada (no se informa de si él sigue allí o ya volvió)
I broke my leg (puede que la pierna ya esté curada o que aún siga rota)
En aquellos verbos en los que no se utiliza la forma continua hay que recurrir en todos estos supuestos al "present perfect simple".
USED TO / BE USED TO / GET USED TO
We use ‘used to’ for something that happened in the past but no longer happens.
- I used to smoke a packet a day but I stopped 2 years ago.
- Ben used to travel a lot in his job but now, since his promotion, he doesn’t.
- I used to drive to work but now I take the bus.
We also use it for something that was true but no longer is.
- There used to be a cinema in the town but now there isn’t.
- She used to have really long hair but she’s had it all cut off.
- I didn’t use to like him but now I do.
‘Used to do’ is different from ‘ to be used to doing’ and ‘to get used to doing’
TO BE USED TO + -ING
We use ‘to be used to doing’ tos ay that something is normal, not unusual.
- I’m used to living on my own. I’ve done it for quite a long time.
- Hans has lived in England foro ver a year, so he is used to driving on the left now.
- They’ve always lived in hot countries, so they aren’t used to the cold weather here.
TO GET USED TO + -ING
We use ‘to get used to doing’ to talk about the process of something becoming normal for us.
- I didn’t understand the accent when I first moved here but I quickly got used to it. (I quickly used to understanding the accent).
- She has started working nights and is still getting used to sleeping during the day.
- I have always lived in the country but now I’m beginning to get used to living in the city.
1. Caroline …………………. (have) a walkman, now she has an ipod.
2. We haven’t seen Bob very often since he got a promotion. He’s very busy. He ………………………. (not be) so busy.
3. I’ve just got my fist job. It’s exciting but I’ll have ………………… (work) regular hours,.
4. It is difficult for Tom to drive in England. He ……………….. (drive) on the left-hand side of the road.
5. Peter is English. It isn’t difficult for him to drive in England. He ……………….. (drive) on the left-hand side of the road.
6. When Peter was young, he ………………….. (ride) a bicycle to school.
7. People from India usually find our food tasteless. They ………….. (eat) spicy food.
8. Computers ………………… (be) very expensive. Now the prices are more reasonable.
9. English has become internationa. Businessmen ……………….. (speak) English at international meetings.
10. During my childhood, I …………………. (spend) a lot of time with my grandparents.
11. Maria …………………. (think) that she would never ……………….. (live) in New York, but she …………….…. (live) there now.
1. used to have
2. is getting used to being / didn’t use to be
3. to get used to working
4. is getting used to driving
5. is used to driving
6. used to ride
7. are used to eating
8. used to be
9. are used to speaking
10. used to spend
11. used to think
get used to living
is used to living
Some suffixes to form adjectives from nouns:
- -y / -ly friendly
- -ous religious
- -tic democratic
- -ical/ -al political
- -able suitable
- -ive attractive
Some adjective suffixes have special meaning:
- -ish = with the quality of (childish)
- -ish = more or less (greenish)
- -ful = with, having (meaningful)
- -less = without, lacking (meaningless)
- -ed = describe feelings or a state, so they are applied to people.
- -ing = describe nouns or actions which create this feeling.
An interesting book makes me feel interested.
I’m bored (estoy aburrido)
I’m boring (soy aburrido)
In Spanish the difference is in the verb whereas in English the difference is in the adjective ending.
UNIT 1: COMPOUND ADJECTIVES
They are formed combining the adjective with other parts of the sentence. Normally the two words which form the adjective are separated by an hyphen: blue-eyed - de ojos azules, well-known - bien/muy conocido, etc.
- An actor who is well known > A well-known actor
- A girl who is four years old > A four-year-old girl
- A person who works hard > A hard-working person
- A conference that lasts three hours > A three-hour conference
*Note: the adjectives don’t have any plural part.
- A three-hours conference (incorrect)
- A three-hour conference (correct)
- a good-looking girl - una muchacha bonita
- a well-dressed woman - una mujer bien vestida
- a pair of high-heeled shoes - un par de zapatos de tacón alto.
- a well-known actor - un actor bien conocido
- some handmade toys - algunos juguetes hechos a mano
- a bulletproof vest - un chaleco a prueba de balas
- a first-class ticket - un bllete de primera clase
- a well-kept house - una casa bien conservada
- a part-time job - un trabajo de tiempo parcial
- a brand-new radio - una radio completamente nueva
- several duty-free goods - varios productos libres de impuestos
- a one-way street - una calle de una sola dirección
- a second-hand car - un coche de segunda mano
- a hard-working person - una persona trabajadora
- a tight-fisted banker - un banquero tacaño
- a kind-hearted mother - una madre bondadosa
- an absent-minded scientist - un científico distraído
- a two-faced politician - un político falso
- a pig-headed friend - un amigo testarudo
- a smooth-tongued employee - un empleado chupamedias
- a stuck-up model - una modelo engreída
- a self-centered artist - un artista egocéntrico
- a good-natured professor - un profesor bonachón
- a quick-tempered boss - un jefe irascible
- a broad-minded president - un presidente tolerante, de mente abierta
- a narrow-minded minister - un ministro de mente estrecha
- a fair-haired girl - una chica de pelo rubio
- a curly-haired baby - un bebé de pelo rizado
- a green-eyed woman - una mujer de ojos verdes
- a long-legged model - una modelo de piernas largas
- a left-handed boxer - un boxeador zurdo
- a right-handed tennis player - un tenista diestro
- a flatfooted runner - un corredor de pie plano
- a bowlegged cowboy - un vaquero patizambo, de piernas arqueadas
- a short-sighted writer - un escritor corto de vista
- a cross-eyed boy - un chico bizco
- a dark-skinned person - una persona de piel oscura
- a narrow-waisted actress - una actriz de cintura estrecha
- a freckle-faced little girl - una niñita de cara con pecas
- a five-dollar note - un billete de cinco dólares
- a six-sided figure - un figura de seis lados
- a twenty-year-old girl - una chica de veinte años
- a three-hour conference - una conferencia de tres horas
- a ten-page report - un informe de diez páginas
- a four-day journey - un viaje de cuatro días
- a five-kilometer tunnel - un túnel de cinco kilómetros
- a thirty-question test - una prueba de treinta preguntas
- a two-week tour - un tour de dos semanas
- a ten-minute call - una llamada de diez minutos
- a twenty-mile border - una frontera de veinte millas
- a ten-speed bicycle - una bicicleta de diez velocidades
- a forty-story building - edificio de cuarenta pisos
Separable Phrasal Verbs
Separable Phrasal Verbs
When the object of the following phrasal verbs is a pronoun, the two parts of the phrasal verb must be separated:
The terrorists tried to blow up the railroad station.
mention a topic
My mother brought up that little matter of my prison record again.
It isn’t easy to bring up children nowadays.
They called off this afternoon’s meeting
repeat a job
Do this homework over.
complete a form
Fill out this application form and mail it in.
fill to capacity
She filled up the grocery cart with free food.
My sister found out that her husband had been planning a surprise party for her.
give something to someone else for free
The filling station was giving away free gas.
return an object
My brother borrowed my car. I have a feeling he’s not about to give it back.
submit something (assignment)
The students handed in their papers and left the room.
put something on hook or receiver
She hung up the phone before she hung up her clothes.
I hate to hold up the meeting, but I have to go to the bathroom.
hold up (2)
Three masked gunmen held up the Security Bank this afternoon.
You left out the part about the police chase down Asylum Avenue.
The lawyers looked over the papers carefully before questioning the witness. (They looked them over carefully.)
search in a list
You’ve misspelled this word again. You’d better look it up.
invent a story or lie
She knew she was in trouble, so she made up a story about going to the movies with her friends.
He was so far away, we really couldn’t make out what he was saying.
There were three men in the line-up. She picked out the guy she thought had stolen her purse.
lift something off something else
The crane picked up the entire house. (Watch them pick itup.)
call attention to
As we drove through Paris, Francoise pointed out the major historical sites.
save or store
We put away money for our retirement. She put away the cereal boxes.
We asked the boss to put off the meeting until tomorrow. (Please put it off for another day.)
put clothing on the body
I put on a sweater and a jacket. (I put them on quickly.)
The firefighters put out the house fire before it could spread. (They put it out quickly.)
I read over the homework, but couldn’t make any sense of it.
to arrange, begin
My wife set up the living room exactly the way she wanted it. She set it up.
make a written note
These are your instructions. Write them down before you forget.
It was so hot that I had to take off my shirt.
We have serious problems here. Let’s talk them over like adults.
That’s a lot of money! Don’t just throw it away.
put clothing on to see if it fits
She tried on fifteen dresses before she found one she liked.
I tried out four cars before I could find one that pleased me.
Your radio is driving me crazy! Please turn it down.
turn down (2)
He applied for a promotion twice this year, but he was turned down both times.
raise the volume
Grandpa couldn’t hear, so he turned up his hearing aid.
switch off electricity
We turned off the lights before anyone could see us.
turn off (2)
It was a disgusting movie. It really turned me off.
switch on the electricity
Turn on the CD player so we can dance.
exhaust, use completely
The gang members used up all the money and went out to rob some more banks.
Inseparable Phrasal Verbs (Transitive)
ask to recite in class
The teacher called on students in the back row.
call on (2)
The old minister continued to call on his sick parishioners.
recover from sickness or disappointment
I got over the flu, but I don’t know if I’ll ever get overmy broken heart.
The students went over the material before the exam. They should have gone over it twice.
use up; consume
They country went through most of its coal reserves in one year. Did he go through all his money already?
take care of
My mother promised to look after my dog while I was gone.
The police will look into the possibilities of embezzlement.
find by chance
I ran across my old roommate at the college reunion.
Carlos ran into his English professor in the hallway.
My second son seems to take after his mother.
It seemed strange to see my old boss wait on tables.
Three-Word Phrasal Verbs (Transitive)
break in on
interrupt (a conversation)
I was talking to Mom on the phone when the operator broke in on our call.
catch up with
After our month-long trip, it was time to catch up with the neighbors and the news around town.
check up on
The boys promised to check up on the condition of the summer house from time to time.
come up with
to contribute (suggestion, money)
After years of giving nothing, the old parishioner was able tocome up with a thousand-dollar donation.
cut down on
We tried to cut down on the money we were spending on entertainment.
drop out of
I hope none of my students drop out of school this semester.
get along with
have a good relationship with
I found it very hard to get along with my brother when we were young.
get away with
Janik cheated on the exam and then tried to get away with it.
get rid of
The citizens tried to get rid of their corrupt mayor in the recent election.
get through with
When will you ever get through with that program?
keep up with
maintain pace with
It’s hard to keep up with the Joneses when you lose your job!
look forward to
anticipate with pleasure
I always look forward to the beginning of a new semester.
look down on
It’s typical of a jingoistic country that the citizens look down on their geographical neighbors.
look in on
We were going to look in on my brother-in-law, but he wasn’t home.
look out for
be careful, anticipate
Good instructors will look out for early signs of failure in their students
look up to
First-graders really look up to their teachers.
make sure of
Make sure of the student’s identity before you let him into the classroom.
put up with
The teacher had to put up with a great deal of nonsense from the new students.
run out of
The runners ran out of energy before the end of the race.
take care of
be responsible for
My oldest sister took care of us younger children after Mom died.
talk back to
The star player talked back to the coach and was thrown off the team.
think back on
I often think back on my childhood with great pleasure.
walk out on
Her husband walked out on her and their three children.
Intransitive Phrasal Verbs
That old Jeep had a tendency to break down just when I needed it the most.
Popular songs seem to catch on in California first and then spread eastward.
return to a place
Father promised that we would never come back to this horrible place.
They tried to come in through the back door, but it was locked.
He was hit on the head very hard, but after several minutes, he started to come to again.
The children promised to come over, but they never do.
visit without appointment
We used to just drop by, but they were never home, so we stopped doing that.
dine in a restaurant
When we visited Paris, we loved eating out in the sidewalk cafes.
Uncle Heine didn’t have much money, but he always seemed to get by without borrowing money from relatives.
Grandmother tried to get up, but the couch was too low, and she couldn’t make it on her own.
return to a place
It’s hard to imagine that we will ever go back to Lithuania.
He would finish one Dickens novel and then just go on to the next.
go on (2)
The cops heard all the noise and stopped to see what wasgoing on.
Charles grew up to be a lot like his father.
remain at a distance
The judge warned the stalker to keep away from his victim’s home.
keep on (with gerund)
continue with the same
He tried to keep on singing long after his voice was ruined.
lose consciousness, faint
He had drunk too much; he passed out on the sidewalk outside the bar.
Whenever he sat down at the piano, we knew he was going toshow off.
Day after day, Efrain showed up for class twenty minutes late.
arouse from sleep
I woke up when the rooster crowed.
Here’s a list of 1000 phrasal verbs: